TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC

TCAS has devoted its website to the role of the expert toxicologist and the science of toxicology. The following pages present both original and edited public-domain information compiled as a useful educational resource. This site map is a content reference intended to assist with rapid location of desired topics and subject material. Please let us know if you have suggestions for improving our website content.


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Toxicology
|   |   |   |                
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Metals
  Toxic
Exposures
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Testing
Risk
Assessment
Forensic
Toxicology
Causation
Evaluation
|   |   |   |                
TCE & Vinyl Chloride   Phosphoric
Acid
  Alcohol Toxicology   TCDD
Dioxin
               
|   |   |   |                
Endogenous Alcohol   Cleaning Chemicals   Drugs of
Abuse
  LNAPL
Toxicology
               
|   |   |                    
Cocaine Assessment   Pesticide Exposure   Pharmaceutical
Toxicology
                   
|   |   |                    
Alcohol Intoxication   Toxic
Encepthalopathy
  Consumer
Products
                   
|   |   |                    
Mold and
Fungi
  Mass
Toxic Tort
  Hazardous
Substances
Environmental
Hazards
Industrial Chemicals Hydrocarbons Metals & Compounds Pesticides
|   |                        
Drug Interaction PAH and PCB
Contamination
Marijuana Accident Long Term
Drug Use
Heroin
Abuse
Workmen's Comp Carbon Monoxide    

 

Site Index

  1. Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

    1. Toxicology Background
    2. Mass Toxic Torts
    3. What is a Forensic Toxicologist?
      1. Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists
      2. Toxicological Expertise and Specializations
      3. References
      4. A Message from Dr. Sawyer
    4. Areas of Expertise
      1. Forensic Toxicology
      2. Environmental Testing
      3. Toxic Exposures
      4. Risk Assessment
      5. Causation Evaluation
      6. Hazardous Substances
      7. Heavy Metals
      8. Alcohol Toxicology
      9. Drugs of Abuse
      10. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
      11. Consumer Products
    5. Case Studies in Toxicology
    6. About This Toxicology Website
  2. About Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists

    1. Meet TCAS
    2. Staff
      1. Dr. William R. Sawyer, Chief Toxicologist
      2. Funmi Afelumo, M.S., Environmental Toxicologist
      3. Jennifer Clark, Office Manager
      4. Bonnie Serling, M.S., Chemical Engineering
      5. Carol Sawyer, Accounting Manager
      6. Our Trusted Support Staff
    3. Gallery
      1. International
  3. Contact Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists

    1. Call or Write
    2. Send a Message
  4. Curriculum Vitae: William R. Sawyer, Ph.D., D-ABFM

    1. Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine
    2. Introduction
    3. Contact Information
    4. Education
    5. Experience
      1. Forensic Environmental and Laboratory Analyses
      2. Professional Experience
        1. Chief Toxicologist
        2. Peer Reviewer
        3. Assistant Professor (adjunct)
        4. Laboratory Director
        5. Associate Editor
        6. Chief Toxicologist
        7. Licensed Laboratory Director
        8. Analytical Toxicologist
        9. Laboratory Technician
        10. Laboratory Technician
      3. Certifications
        1. Board Certification
        2. Board Certification
        3. OSHA 29 CFR1910.120
        4. Clinical Laboratory Director
        5. Environmental Laboratory Director
        6. South Carolina Department of Health
        7. New Jersey DEPE Laboratory Director
        8. Asbestos Inspector
    6. Societies and Honors
    7. Professional Presentations
    8. Articles, Abstracts, Treatises and Editorial Publications
    9. Personal Information
  5. Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations

    1. Areas of Expertise
      1. Forensic Toxicology
      2. Environmental Testing
      3. Toxic Exposures
      4. Risk Assessment
      5. Causation Evaluation
    2. Areas of Specialization
      1. Hazardous Substances
      2. Heavy Metals
      3. Alcohol Toxicology
      4. Drugs of Abuse
      5. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
      6. Consumer Products
  6. Toxicology in the News

    1. Dr. Sawyer Cited in UK Newspaper Regarding Hydrocarbon Contamination of Marine Life
    2. Dr. Sawyer Interviewed in "Dead Files" Television Episode
    3. Dr. Sawyer Interviewed by Lisa Myers on NBC Nightly News
    4. Dr. Sawyer Interviewed Concerning Government Interference in Oil Spill Investigation
    5. Dr. Sawyer Interviewed Concerning Safety of Gulf Seafood
  7. Toxicological Case Studies

    1. Case Studies in Toxicology
      1. Acute Marijuana Intoxication
      2. Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident
      3. Carbon Monoxide Turns Camping Event Deadly
      4. Cass Lake: Mass Toxic Tort
      5. Cleaning Chemical Exposure
      6. Fatal Accident Caused by Long-Term Drug Use?
      7. Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion
      8. High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy
      9. Mold in Motor Home Causes Aspergilloma
      10. Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death
      11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard
      12. Polypharmacology Induces "Sleep Driving"
      13. Postmortem Alcohol Formation in a Severely Burned Victim
      14. Toxic Tort: Trichloroethylene in Residential Water Supply
      15. Toxicological Assessment of Phosphoric Acid
      16. Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?
      17. Workmen's Compensation Benefits Denied for Presumed Drug Use?
    2. Toxic Exposure Studies
      1. TCDD Dioxin Toxicology
      2. Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)
  8. Case Studies in Toxicology: Acute Marijuana Intoxication Contributes to Fatal Motorcycle Accident

    1. Accident Summary
    2. Assessment Strategy
      1. Pharmacokinetic Methodology
    3. Courtroom Showdown
      1. Outcome
    4. Summary
  9. Case Studies in Toxicology: Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident

    1. Accident Summary
    2. Toxicological Assessment of Contributing Factors
    3. Blood Alcohol Calculations
    4. Summary
      1. Outcome
      2. Postscript
  10. Case Studies in Toxicology: Carbon Monoxide Turns Camping Event Deadly

    1. Toxicological Investigation
      1. Accident Reconstruction
      2. Inadvertent Enhancement of Toxicity
    2. Toxicology of Carbon Monoxide
      1. Results of Investigation
    3. Presentation of Findings
      1. Outcome
      2. Word to the Wise
  11. Case Studies in Toxicology: Cass Lake: Mass Toxic Tort

    1. Exposure Summary
    2. Causation Methodology
      1. No Substitute for Hard Work
    3. Credibility in the Courtroom
    4. Outcome
    5. Postscript
  12. Case Studies in Toxicology: Cleaning Chemical Exposure

    1. Suspicious Circumstances Cast Doubt on Claims
      1. Toxic Exposure or Munchausen Syndrome?
    2. Summary
  13. Case Studies in Toxicology: Fatal Accident Caused by Long-Term Drug Use?

    1. Accident Summary
    2. Collecting Pharmacological Evidence
      1. Drug-Induced Driver Impairment?
      2. Reaction Time Assessment: Slow to Respond?
      3. Toxicology: Separating Fact from Fiction
    3. Day in Court
      1. Outcome
  14. Case Studies in Toxicology: Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion

    1. Alleged Cocaine Use by Teacher
      1. Hair Growth Studies
      2. Erroneous Hair Sampling
    2. Summary
  15. Case Studies in Toxicology: Mold in Motor Home Causes Aspergilloma

    1. Bumpy Panels and Spongy Floors
    2. Causation Methodology
      1. The Role of Weight-of-Evidence
      2. Daubert Challenge
    3. Summary
      1. Outcome
  16. Case Studies in Toxicology: Pesticide Exposure

    1. Toxic Assessment of Pesticide Exposure
      1. Coroner's Report and Conclusion
      2. Spoliation of Pesticide Application Documents
      3. Methyl Bromide
      4. "Cy-Kick" (cyfluthrin)
    2. Summary
  17. Case Studies in Toxicology: Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposure Results in Toxic Encephalopathy

    1. Causation Demonstrated by Weight-of-Evidence
    2. Summary
      1. Outcome
  18. Case Studies in Toxicology: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard

    1. Exposure Summary
    2. Assessment Strategy
      1. Assembling the Assessment
      2. Presenting the Assessment
    3. Courtroom Challenges
      1. Summary
  19. Case Studies in Toxicology: Polypharmacology Induces "Sleep Driving"

    1. Pharmaceutical Exposure Assessment
      1. Adverse Effects of Antidepressants
        1. Ambien (zolpidem)
        2. Prozac (fluoxetine)
        3. Xanax (alprazolam)
    2. Summary of Results
    3. Outcome
  20. Case Studies in Toxicology: Postmortem Endogenous Alcohol Formation in a Severely Burned Victim

    1. Vehicle Fire Results in Massive Injuries and Death
    2. Postmortem Alcohol Formation
    3. Summary
      1. Postmortem Ethanol Formation Studies
  21. Case Studies in Toxicology: Toxicological Assessment of Phosphoric Acid

    1. Toxic Assessment of Acute Lung Injury
    2. Phosphoric Acid Toxicity
      1. Aerosol and Particle Distribution in the Respiratory System
      2. Toxic Assessment of Acute Lung Injury: Assumed Causation Discredited
    3. Summary
  22. Case Studies in Toxicology: Toxic Tort: Trichloroethylene and Vinyl Chloride Contamination

    1. Chronic Ingestion of TCE and Vinyl Chloride from Contaminated Well Water
      1. Historical Factors
      2. Toxicological Assessment of TCE and Vinyl Chloride Exposure
      3. Notable Toxicological Factors Assessed by Dr. Sawyer
      4. Outcome
    2. Summary
  23. Case Studies in Toxicology: Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?

    1. No Apparent Cause
    2. Unexpected Discovery
    3. Heroin and Cognitive Impairment
    4. No "Alternative Facts" Here
    5. Weight of Evidence
    6. Outcome
      1. Epilogue
  24. Case Studies in Toxicology: Workmen's Compensation Benefits Denied for Presumed Drug Use?

    1. The Employer Intercedes
    2. Toxicological Assessment
    3. Workmen's Compensation Hearing
    4. Outcome
  25. Causation Evaluation in Toxicology

    1. Types of Causation
    2. Causation and Weight-of-Evidence
      1. Standards of Admissibility
      2. Interpretation of Toxicological Evidence
    3. Summary
  26. Environmental Testing

    1. Gulf Oil Spill
    2. Summary
  27. Forensic Analysis in Toxicology

    1. Principles of Forensic Toxicology
    2. Forensic Toxicology in Litigation
      1. Compliance with Scientific Methodologies
    3. Summary
    4. Forensic Toxicology Archives
  28. Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)

    1. What is LNAPL?
      1. LNAPL Toxicological Components
      2. Hydrological Properties of LNAPL Contamination
      3. LNAPL Vapor Intrusion
    2. LNAPL Source Identification
      1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
      2. LNAPL Contamination Liability
    3. Summary
  29. Risk Assessment in Toxicology

    1. Toxicological Risk Assessment Components
      1. Data Collection and Evaluation
      2. Exposure Assessment
      3. Toxicity Assessment
      4. Risk Characterization
    2. Risk Assessment Methodology
      1. Scientific Credibility
      2. Cancer Risk Calculations
      3. Assumptions
      4. Historical Factors
      5. Standards of Admissibility
      6. Medical Monitoring
    3. Summary
  30. Toxic Exposures

    1. Exposure Assessment in Toxicology
      1. Exposure Pathways
        1. Multiple Pathways
        2. Calculating Cumulative Exposure
    2. Summary
    3. Toxic Substances
      1. Hazardous Substances
      2. Heavy Metals
      3. Alcohol Toxicology
      4. Drugs of Abuse
      5. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
      6. Consumer Products
  31. Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins

    1. Overview
    2. Introduction
    3. TCDD Characteristics
      1. TCDD Levels in the U.S. Population
      2. TCDD Background Level
      3. Dioxin Soil Cleanup Levels in the U.S.
    4. Dioxin Potency and Toxic Equivalency Factors
      1. Chlorinated Compounds with Dioxin-Like Properties
      2. Applying Toxic Equivalency Factors to Calculate TEQ
      3. Dioxin Analyses Using CALUX (Chemical-Activated Luciferase Expression)
    5. Assessing Dioxin's Adverse Health Effects
      1. TCDD Toxicity
      2. Mechanisms and Scope of TCDD Morbidity
      3. TCDD Carcinogenicity
      4. Proposed Mechanism of TCDD Toxicity
    6. Assessing TCDD Exposure
      1. Routes of Exposure
      2. Blood Lipid Dioxin Exposure Assessment
    7. Risk Characterization
      1. Calculating Cancer Risk
      2. Linear Carcinogenicity vs. Threshold Theory
    8. Appendix: Human Dioxin Exposure Studies
      1. Brain Cancer and Neuroblastoma
      2. Breast Cancer
      3. Cervical Cancer
      4. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease
      5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
      6. Diabetes Mellitus
      7. Elevated Plasma Lipids, Triglycerides and Cholesterol
      8. Endometriosis
      9. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Cancer
      10. Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
      11. Hepatobiliary Cancer
      12. Hodgkin's Disease
      13. Immunosuppression
      14. Ischemic Heart Disease
      15. Leukemia
      16. Liver Disease and Cirrhosis
      17. Malignant Melanoma
      18. Multiple Myeloma
      19. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)
      20. Pleural Cancer
      21. Renal Cancer
      22. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
      23. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
      24. Thyroid Cancer
  32. Toxic Substances

    1. Hazardous Substances
    2. Heavy Metals
    3. Alcohol Toxicology
    4. Drugs of Abuse
    5. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
    6. Consumer Products
    7. The Role of the Toxicologist
    8. Toxicological Expert Testimony
  33. Alcohol Toxicology

    1. Blood-Alcohol Assessments
    2. Impairment and Field Sobriety Assessments
    3. Retrograde Extrapolation
    4. Dram Shop
    5. Endogenous Alcohol
  34. Metals & Compounds

    1. Overview
    2. Arsenic
    3. Asbestos
    4. Lithium
    5. NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)
  35. Consumer Product Toxicology

    1. Cleaning and Janitorial Chemicals
    2. Cosmetic Products
    3. Herbal Products
    4. Pesticides and Poison Baits
  36. Drugs of Abuse

    1. Benzodiazepines
    2. Cocaine
    3. Opiates
    4. Opioids
    5. THC (Cannabis, Marijuana)
    6. Club Drugs
  37. Environmantal Hazard Toxicology

    1. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    2. Dust Toxicity
    3. Mold and Fungi
    4. Pyrolysis Emissions
    5. Radioactive Waste
  38. Hazardous Substances

    1. Hazardous Substance Toxicological Reference
  39. Industrial Chemical Toxicology

    1. Overview
    2. Acids
    3. Corrosives
    4. Solvents
    5. Trichloroethlyene (TCE)
    6. Vinyl Chloride
  40. Toxicology of Heavy Metals

    1. Toxicological Characteristics of Heavy Metals
      1. Antimony
      2. Arsenic
      3. Cadmium
      4. Chromium
      5. Cobalt
      6. Copper
      7. Lead
      8. Mercury
      9. Manganese
      10. Thallium
      11. Titanium
      12. Uranium
  41. Toxicology of Hydrocarbons

    1. Overview
    2. Benzene
    3. Benzo[a]pyrene
    4. BTEX
    5. Dioxins and PCBs
    6. LNAPL
    7. PAHs
    8. Petroleum Products
  42. Toxicology of Pesticides

    1. Overview
    2. Fungicides
    3. Herbicides
    4. Insecticides
    5. Poison Baits
  43. Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals

    1. Drugs of Abuse and Drug Testing
    2. Pharmaceuticals and Prescription Medications
    3. Neurotoxins and Neurotoxicity
    4. Drug Toxicity
    5. Polypharmacology and Drug Interactions
    6. Prescription Errors and Medical Malpractice
  44. Human Health Risk Assessments

    1. Areas of Expertise (ALM Display)
      1. Forensic Toxicology
      2. Environmental Testing
      3. Toxic Exposures
      4. Risk Assessment
      5. Causation Evaluation
      6. Hazardous Substances
      7. Heavy Metals
      8. Alcohol Toxicology
      9. Drugs of Abuse
      10. Pharmaceutical Toxicology
      11. Consumer Products
  45. Glossary of Toxicological Terms and Phrases

  46. Subscribe to ExpertTox News

  47. Site Map


A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"Toxicology is a complex science involving the study of adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the environment. Our website barely scratches the surface. I invite you to contact our office if you have questions or would like additional information."

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Toxic Exposures  |  Environmental Testing  |  Risk Assessment  |  Forensic Toxicology  |  Causation Evaluation
Dioxin  |  LNAPL  |  Hazardous Substances  |  Heavy Metals  |  Alcohol Toxicology  |  Drugs of Abuse
Environmental Hazards  |  Industrial Chemicals  |  Hydrocarbons  |  Metals & Compounds  |  Pesticides
Pharmaceutical Toxicology  |  Consumer Products  |  Human Health Risk Assessments

This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.