TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Consumer Product Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Consumer Product Toxicology
Consumer product toxicology involves a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. a Consumer product toxicology evaluations involve a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. With respect to toxicity, the manner in which consumer products are used can be just as important as the chemicals in the products. For example, ammonia and chlorine... (more)

Metals and Compounds   Hazardous Substances: Metals and Compounds
Overview Metals and compounds all possess unique toxicological properties [a] Metals and compounds represent a special class of hazardous substances in that they each possess physical properties unique to that substance and impose specific, well-documented toxicological effects. Heavy metals in particular can pose significant and persistent environmental... (more)

Toxicology of Pesticides   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Pesticides
Overview Pathways of pesticide movement in the hydrologic cycle USGS [a] Pesticides are in widespread use throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. There are many classes of pesticides including insecticides pyrethrins and pyrethroids, n-methyl carbamates, organophosphate insecticides, organochlorines, biologicals and acaricides , herbicides chlorophenoxy... (more)

Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins   Toxic Exposure Studies: Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins
tetrachlorodibenzodioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans Overview Of the many toxic substances confronting the expert toxicologist, dioxins are among the most challenging. A scientifically credible toxicological assessment of a dioxin exposure must meet many requirements. The body of ongoing research is vast and there are a great many human epidemiological... (more)

Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death   Case Studies in Toxicology: Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death
This case study summarizes events relating to the death of a man with a history of seizure disorder who was fatally exposed to pesticides in his unventilated basement apartment. It illustrates the role of an impartial toxicological assessment in litigation involving pesticides. The county coroner suspected pesticide exposure as a contributing factor... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

Toxicology in the News   Toxicology in the News
Dr. Sawyer has made numerous television and media appearances with regard to toxicological matters including food safety, poisonings, exposures, scientific methods and other issues of public interest. His opinions have been solicited by newpapers and magazines on a variety of toxicological issues. Here are some recent examples: Quick Reference Dr.... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"Consumer product toxicology encompasses a wide scope of substances which impose challenging assessment requirements. Objective weight-of-evidence procedures must be applied to establish or refute causation to reasonable toxicological certainty."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.