TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Consumer Product Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Consumer Product Toxicology
Consumer product toxicology involves a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. a Consumer product toxicology evaluations involve a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. With respect to toxicity, the manner in which consumer products are used can be just as important as the chemicals in the products. For example, ammonia and chlorine... (more)

Industrial Chemical Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Industrial Chemical Toxicology
Overview Each chemical has different toxicological properties and characteristics [a] There are tens of thousands of different industrial chemicals manufactured, stored and transported throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. Each substance has different toxicological properties and physical characteristics. Some industrial chemicals can pose... (more)

Toxicology of Pesticides   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Pesticides
Overview Pathways of pesticide movement in the hydrologic cycle USGS [a] Pesticides are in widespread use throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. There are many classes of pesticides including insecticides pyrethrins and pyrethroids, n-methyl carbamates, organophosphate insecticides, organochlorines, biologicals and acaricides , herbicides chlorophenoxy... (more)

Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins   Toxic Exposure Studies: Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins
tetrachlorodibenzodioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans Overview Of the many toxic substances confronting the expert toxicologist, dioxins are among the most challenging. A scientifically credible toxicological assessment of a dioxin exposure must meet many requirements. The body of ongoing research is vast and there are a great many human epidemiological... (more)

Cleaning Chemical Exposure   Case Studies in Toxicology: Cleaning Chemical Exposure
This case study recounts the circumstances surrounding a woman's claims that exposure to a chemical stripping agent caused burns, infection and damage to her immune system. The outcome illustrates the importance of validating claims against medical history and assessing toxicological factors according to the peer-reviewed literature to establish reasonable... (more)

High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy   Case Studies in Toxicology: High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy
This case study demonstrates how causation can be demonstrated by weight of evidence WOE and how objective investigation of contributing factors can play a pivitol role in formulating an expert opinion to reasonable toxicological certainty. Toxic encephalopathy can be caused by repeated exposure to refinery hydrocarbon vapors. [a] A process engineer... (more)

Toxicological Assessment of Phosphoric Acid   Case Studies in Toxicology: Toxicological Assessment of Phosphoric Acid
This case study summarizes the events leading up to and following the filing of a lawsuit by a woman against her employer for an injury allegedly suffered as a consequence of a toxic exposure to a cleaning chemical. It illustrates the important role a toxicological assessment can play in litigation and demonstrates how inference and assumption can... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

Hazardous substance toxicology requires application of scrupulous attention to detail and methodology. Many years of experience are a virtue in conducting such assessments, particularly in cases involving widespread contamination.

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.