Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Metals and Compounds   Hazardous Substances: Metals and Compounds
Overview Metals and compounds all possess unique toxicological properties [a] Metals and compounds represent a special class of hazardous substances in that they each possess physical properties unique to that substance and impose specific, well-documented toxicological effects. Heavy metals in particular can pose significant and persistent environmental... (more)

Environmantal Hazard Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Environmantal Hazard Toxicology
Overview TCAS has extensive experience assessing environmental hazards [a] Environmental hazards are substances found within a confined environment which can pose an exposure hazard if ingested, inhaled or absorbed. These include such agents as dust, mold and fungi, carbon monoxide, pyrolysis emissions, nuclear waste and many others. The wide range... (more)

Industrial Chemical Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Industrial Chemical Toxicology
Overview Each chemical has different toxicological properties and characteristics [a] There are tens of thousands of different industrial chemicals manufactured, stored and transported throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. Each substance has different toxicological properties and physical characteristics. Some industrial chemicals can pose... (more)

Toxicology of Hydrocarbons   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Hydrocarbons
Overview TCAS has broad experience assessing the health effects of hydrocarbons [a] Hydrocarbons are a class of organic chemical compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. Although hydrocarbons all possess structural similarities, there is a vast spectrum of compounds and each has different physical, chemical and reactive properties. Similarly,... (more)

Toxicology of Pesticides   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Pesticides
Overview Pathways of pesticide movement in the hydrologic cycle USGS [a] Pesticides are in widespread use throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. There are many classes of pesticides including insecticides pyrethrins and pyrethroids, n-methyl carbamates, organophosphate insecticides, organochlorines, biologicals and acaricides , herbicides chlorophenoxy... (more)

Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins   Toxic Exposure Studies: Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins
tetrachlorodibenzodioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans Overview Of the many toxic substances confronting the expert toxicologist, dioxins are among the most challenging. A scientifically credible toxicological assessment of a dioxin exposure must meet many requirements. The body of ongoing research is vast and there are a great many human epidemiological... (more)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard   Case Studies in Toxicology: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard
This case study reviews a residential contamination case involving local residents exposed to PAH- and PCB-contaminated water that flooded their properties. It illustrates the importance of applying generally-accepted, peer-reviewed toxicological assessment methods and the steps necessary to present scientifically credible findings in litigation. Exposure... (more)

Cass Lake: Mass Toxic Tort   Case Studies in Toxicology: Cass Lake: Mass Toxic Tort
This case study summarizes the events leading up to and following a widespread contamination case involving local residents and a company disclaiming responsibility for damages. It illustrates the role of weight-of-evidence WOE in a toxicological analysis and demonstrates how meticulous attention to detail can be a deciding factor in a complex assessment... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

Hazardous substance toxicology requires application of scrupulous attention to detail and methodology. Many years of experience are a virtue in conducting such assessments, particularly in cases involving widespread contamination.

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.