TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Environmantal Hazard Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Environmantal Hazard Toxicology
Overview TCAS has extensive experience assessing environmental hazards [a] Environmental hazards are substances found within a confined environment which can pose an exposure hazard if ingested, inhaled or absorbed. These include such agents as dust, mold and fungi, carbon monoxide, pyrolysis emissions, nuclear waste and many others. The wide range... (more)

Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins   Toxic Exposure Studies: Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins
tetrachlorodibenzodioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans Overview Of the many toxic substances confronting the expert toxicologist, dioxins are among the most challenging. A scientifically credible toxicological assessment of a dioxin exposure must meet many requirements. The body of ongoing research is vast and there are a great many human epidemiological... (more)

Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion   Case Studies in Toxicology: Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion
This case study recounts the circumstances relating to a teacher faced with pending dismissal for alleged drug use based on erroneous interpretation of cocaine in hair test samples. This case illustrates the importance of applying a correct, peer-reviewed scientific methodology to laboratory analyses and interpreting the results in line with established... (more)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard   Case Studies in Toxicology: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard
This case study reviews a residential contamination case involving local residents exposed to PAH- and PCB-contaminated water that flooded their properties. It illustrates the importance of applying generally-accepted, peer-reviewed toxicological assessment methods and the steps necessary to present scientifically credible findings in litigation. Exposure... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC   About TCAS: Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC
Meet TCAS The TCAS team during a recent toxicological case review. [a] Founded in 1988 and led by Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists is a group of dedicated professionals working diligently to achieve stellar results for its clients by objectively assessing toxicological evidence and providing impartial reports... (more)

Site Map   Site Map
Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC TCAS has devoted its website to the role of the expert toxicologist and the science of toxicology. The following pages present both original and edited public-domain information compiled as a useful educational resource. This site map is a content reference intended to assist with rapid location... (more)

A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

Hazardous substance toxicology requires application of scrupulous attention to detail and methodology. Many years of experience are a virtue in conducting such assessments, particularly in cases involving widespread contamination.

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.