TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Environmental Testing   Environmental Testing
Environmental testing involves a wide range of disciplines specific to toxicology. Aside from collecting static air, water and soil samples and performing accredited laboratory assessments for contaminants, environmental testing can also involve substance concentration monitoring over time and the collation of client data from medical records, questionnaires... (more)

Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Consumer Product Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Consumer Product Toxicology
Consumer product toxicology involves a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. a Consumer product toxicology evaluations involve a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. With respect to toxicity, the manner in which consumer products are used can be just as important as the chemicals in the products. For example, ammonia and chlorine... (more)

Toxicology of Hydrocarbons   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Hydrocarbons
Overview TCAS has broad experience assessing the health effects of hydrocarbons [a] Hydrocarbons are a class of organic chemical compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. Although hydrocarbons all possess structural similarities, there is a vast spectrum of compounds and each has different physical, chemical and reactive properties. Similarly,... (more)

Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)   Toxic Exposure Studies: Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)
For more than two decades, TCAS has been retained in cases involving LNAPLs. We have considerable experience in establishing the source s , age and characteristics of LNAPL. Additionally, we have performed LNAPL risk assessments on behalf of individuals, private industry and government agencies New York State DEC, New Jersey DEC and others . We have... (more)

High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy   Case Studies in Toxicology: High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy
This case study demonstrates how causation can be demonstrated by weight of evidence WOE and how objective investigation of contributing factors can play a pivitol role in formulating an expert opinion to reasonable toxicological certainty. Toxic encephalopathy can be caused by repeated exposure to refinery hydrocarbon vapors. [a] A process engineer... (more)

Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death   Case Studies in Toxicology: Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death
This case study summarizes events relating to the death of a man with a history of seizure disorder who was fatally exposed to pesticides in his unventilated basement apartment. It illustrates the role of an impartial toxicological assessment in litigation involving pesticides. The county coroner suspected pesticide exposure as a contributing factor... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

Hazardous substance toxicology requires application of scrupulous attention to detail and methodology. Many years of experience are a virtue in conducting such assessments, particularly in cases involving widespread contamination.

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.