TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Toxic Substances   Toxic Substances
The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR has published a vast body of information covering a wide range of toxic substances. 1 To provide easy reference and present uniform instructional information, we have defined the following six 6 areas covering specific toxic exposure-related issues in which TCAS has developed extensive expertise... (more)

Hazardous Substances   Toxic Substances: Hazardous Substances
TCAS provides toxicological assessment services for a wide range of hazardous substances [a] Hazardous substances constitute a special class of toxic agents in that they pose immediate dangers to human health via simple contact or proximity. TCAS provides toxicological consulting and assessment services for a wide range of hazardous toxic substances,... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Metals and Compounds   Hazardous Substances: Metals and Compounds
Overview Metals and compounds all possess unique toxicological properties [a] Metals and compounds represent a special class of hazardous substances in that they each possess physical properties unique to that substance and impose specific, well-documented toxicological effects. Heavy metals in particular can pose significant and persistent environmental... (more)

Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion   Case Studies in Toxicology: Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion
This case study recounts the circumstances relating to a teacher faced with pending dismissal for alleged drug use based on erroneous interpretation of cocaine in hair test samples. This case illustrates the importance of applying a correct, peer-reviewed scientific methodology to laboratory analyses and interpreting the results in line with established... (more)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard   Case Studies in Toxicology: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Create Residential Hazard
This case study reviews a residential contamination case involving local residents exposed to PAH- and PCB-contaminated water that flooded their properties. It illustrates the importance of applying generally-accepted, peer-reviewed toxicological assessment methods and the steps necessary to present scientifically credible findings in litigation. Exposure... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"To assess the health effects of heavy metals, the expert toxicologist must conduct investigative research, evaluate the exposure pathways and valence states, calculate dosage and apply weight-of-evidence factors to demonstrate or refute causation."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.