TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)   Toxic Exposure Studies: Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)
For more than two decades, TCAS has been retained in cases involving LNAPLs. We have considerable experience in establishing the source s , age and characteristics of LNAPL. Additionally, we have performed LNAPL risk assessments on behalf of individuals, private industry and government agencies New York State DEC, New Jersey DEC and others . We have... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Site Map   Site Map
Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC TCAS has devoted its website to the role of the expert toxicologist and the science of toxicology. The following pages present both original and edited public-domain information compiled as a useful educational resource. This site map is a content reference intended to assist with rapid location... (more)

A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"To assess the health effects of heavy metals, the expert toxicologist must conduct investigative research, evaluate the exposure pathways and valence states, calculate dosage and apply weight-of-evidence factors to demonstrate or refute causation."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.