TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Causation Evaluation in Toxicology   Causation Evaluation in Toxicology
Causation is at the very heart of the toxicological world. Causation in toxicology is defined as the action of causing or producing an effect as a result of ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption or other exposure routes to a toxic substance. It is the process by which the expert toxicologist establishes or refutes whether a potential adverse health... (more)

Toxic Substances   Toxic Substances
The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR has published a vast body of information covering a wide range of toxic substances. 1 To provide easy reference and present uniform instructional information, we have defined the following six 6 areas covering specific toxic exposure-related issues in which TCAS has developed extensive expertise... (more)

Alcohol Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Alcohol Toxicology
TCAS provides alcohol-related toxicological assessment services. a For more than 28 years, TCAS has regularly provided consultative and professional services involving alcohol toxicology . One of the world's most commonly abused drugs, ethanol ethyl alcohol is a leading contributor to morbidity across cultures. Although low to moderate alcohol consumption... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion   Case Studies in Toxicology: Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion
This case study recounts the circumstances relating to a teacher faced with pending dismissal for alleged drug use based on erroneous interpretation of cocaine in hair test samples. This case illustrates the importance of applying a correct, peer-reviewed scientific methodology to laboratory analyses and interpreting the results in line with established... (more)

Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?   Case Studies in Toxicology: Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?
This case study summarizes a matter in which a window worker was killed while on the job, resulting in the filing of a lawsuit for negligence. It illustrates how toxicological interpretation of historical factors and application of peer-reviewed human studies can play a pivotal role in litigation. A window washer suddenly and unexpectedly fell to his... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"Pharmacology and toxicology are similar in that both require an understanding of biochemistry. However, toxicology focuses upon the adverse health effects of a chemical substance rather than the efficacy of the drug itself."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.