TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 28 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Alcohol Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Alcohol Toxicology
TCAS provides alcohol-related toxicological assessment services. a For more than 28 years, TCAS has regularly provided consultative and professional services involving alcohol toxicology . One of the world's most commonly abused drugs, ethanol ethyl alcohol is a leading contributor to morbidity across cultures. Although low to moderate alcohol consumption... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Consumer Product Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Consumer Product Toxicology
Consumer product toxicology involves a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. a Consumer product toxicology evaluations involve a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. With respect to toxicity, the manner in which consumer products are used can be just as important as the chemicals in the products. For example, ammonia and chlorine... (more)

Metals and Compounds   Hazardous Substances: Metals and Compounds
Overview Metals and compounds all possess unique toxicological properties [a] Metals and compounds represent a special class of hazardous substances in that they each possess physical properties unique to that substance and impose specific, well-documented toxicological effects. Heavy metals in particular can pose significant and persistent environmental... (more)

Polypharmacology Induces   Case Studies in Toxicology: Polypharmacology Induces "Sleep Driving"
This case study illustrates the role of toxicological weight-of-evidence WOE in a motor vehicle accident case involving multiple pharmaceuticals. It also illustrates how drug interactions can be considered evidential in a toxicological causation assessment. Multiple pharmaceutical interactions carry an imprecise risk of driving impairment. a On the... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

Curriculum Vitae: William R. Sawyer, Ph.D., D-ABFM   CV: Curriculum Vitae: William R. Sawyer, Ph.D., D-ABFM
Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine Introduction Dr. William Sawyer is a professional toxicologist with a doctorate in toxicology from Indiana University School of Medicine. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine with more than 28 years of experience in public health and forensic toxicology including five years of governmental... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"Pharmacology and toxicology are similar in that both require an understanding of biochemistry. However, toxicology focuses upon the adverse health effects of a chemical substance rather than the efficacy of the drug itself."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.