TCAS
Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Industrial Chemical Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Industrial Chemical Toxicology
Overview Each chemical has different toxicological properties and characteristics [a] There are tens of thousands of different industrial chemicals manufactured, stored and transported throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. Each substance has different toxicological properties and physical characteristics. Some industrial chemicals can pose... (more)

Toxicology of Pesticides   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Pesticides
Overview Pathways of pesticide movement in the hydrologic cycle USGS [a] Pesticides are in widespread use throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. There are many classes of pesticides including insecticides pyrethrins and pyrethroids, n-methyl carbamates, organophosphate insecticides, organochlorines, biologicals and acaricides , herbicides chlorophenoxy... (more)

High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy   Case Studies in Toxicology: High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy
This case study demonstrates how causation can be demonstrated by weight of evidence WOE and how objective investigation of contributing factors can play a pivitol role in formulating an expert opinion to reasonable toxicological certainty. Toxic encephalopathy can be caused by repeated exposure to refinery hydrocarbon vapors. [a] A process engineer... (more)

Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death   Case Studies in Toxicology: Pesticide Exposure Leads to Death
This case study summarizes events relating to the death of a man with a history of seizure disorder who was fatally exposed to pesticides in his unventilated basement apartment. It illustrates the role of an impartial toxicological assessment in litigation involving pesticides. The county coroner suspected pesticide exposure as a contributing factor... (more)

Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations   Professional Experience and Toxicological Specializations
TCAS has assessed hundreds of different types of toxic substances and exposure effects. [a] TCAS provides professional, comprehensive forensic and environmental exposure analysis, risk assessments and causation determinations. With more than 28 years of hands-on experience, our cases cover a vast range of toxic exposure-related issues combining toxicological... (more)

Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist   Home: Dr. William R. Sawyer, Toxicologist
Ph.D., Diplomate, American Board of Forensic Medicine D-ABFM Dr. William R. Sawyer is an expert forensic toxicologist For more than 28 years expert toxicologist Dr. William R. Sawyer has been providing forensic toxicology consulting services and expert testimony. A diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Sawyer has extensive experience... (more)

Glossary of Toxicological Terms and Phrases   Glossary of Toxicological Terms and Phrases
1 absorption. The taking up of a chemical into the body either orally, through inhalation or via skin exposure. acute toxicity. An immediate toxic response following a single or short-term exposure to an agent or dose. additive effect. When exposure to more than one toxic agent results in the same effect as would be predicted by the sum of the effects... (more)

Site Map   Site Map
Toxicology Consultants and Assessment Specialists, LLC TCAS has devoted its website to the role of the expert toxicologist and the science of toxicology. The following pages present both original and edited public-domain information compiled as a useful educational resource. This site map is a content reference intended to assist with rapid location... (more)

A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"Pharmacology and toxicology are similar in that both require an understanding of biochemistry. However, toxicology focuses upon the adverse health effects of a chemical substance rather than the efficacy of the drug itself."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.