Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Causation Evaluation in Toxicology   Causation Evaluation in Toxicology
Causation is at the very heart of the toxicological world. Causation in toxicology is defined as the action of causing or producing an effect as a result of ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption or other exposure routes to a toxic substance. It is the process by which the expert toxicologist establishes or refutes whether a potential adverse health... (more)

Forensic Analysis in Toxicology   Forensic Toxicology: Forensic Analysis in Toxicology
Forensic toxicology is a multi-disciplinary field combining toxicological principles, analytical chemistry and methods, analytical toxicology, clinical chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, investigative research, data collection and collation - and a certain amount of detective work. TCAS has extensive expertise in forensic toxicology with more than... (more)

Toxic Substances   Toxic Substances
The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR has published a vast body of information covering a wide range of toxic substances. 1 To provide easy reference and present uniform instructional information, we have defined the following six 6 areas covering specific toxic exposure-related issues in which TCAS has developed extensive expertise... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Consumer Product Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Consumer Product Toxicology
Consumer product toxicology involves a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. a Consumer product toxicology evaluations involve a wide range of chemical and biological compounds. With respect to toxicity, the manner in which consumer products are used can be just as important as the chemicals in the products. For example, ammonia and chlorine... (more)

Metals and Compounds   Hazardous Substances: Metals and Compounds
Overview Metals and compounds all possess unique toxicological properties [a] Metals and compounds represent a special class of hazardous substances in that they each possess physical properties unique to that substance and impose specific, well-documented toxicological effects. Heavy metals in particular can pose significant and persistent environmental... (more)

Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins   Toxic Exposure Studies: Toxicology of TCDD and TCDF Dioxins
tetrachlorodibenzodioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans Overview Of the many toxic substances confronting the expert toxicologist, dioxins are among the most challenging. A scientifically credible toxicological assessment of a dioxin exposure must meet many requirements. The body of ongoing research is vast and there are a great many human epidemiological... (more)

Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion   Case Studies in Toxicology: Hair Samples Yield Incorrect Cocaine Use Conclusion
This case study recounts the circumstances relating to a teacher faced with pending dismissal for alleged drug use based on erroneous interpretation of cocaine in hair test samples. This case illustrates the importance of applying a correct, peer-reviewed scientific methodology to laboratory analyses and interpreting the results in line with established... (more)

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.