Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Toxic Exposures   Toxic Exposures
Components of pathway-specific toxicological exposure assessment. Adapted from U.S. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook a This page outlines some of the basic principles of toxic exposure assessment. ATSDR U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry defines a toxic exposure as contact with a toxic substance by swallowing, breathing or touching... (more)

Forensic Analysis in Toxicology   Forensic Toxicology: Forensic Analysis in Toxicology
Forensic toxicology is a multi-disciplinary field combining toxicological principles, analytical chemistry and methods, analytical toxicology, clinical chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, investigative research, data collection and collation - and a certain amount of detective work. TCAS has extensive expertise in forensic toxicology with more than... (more)

Alcohol Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Alcohol Toxicology
TCAS provides alcohol-related toxicological assessment services. a For more than 30 years, TCAS has regularly provided consultative and professional services involving alcohol toxicology . One of the world's most commonly abused drugs, ethanol ethyl alcohol is a leading contributor to morbidity across cultures. Although low to moderate alcohol consumption... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident   Case Studies in Toxicology: Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident
This case study summarizes the events leading up to and following a fatal boating accident on Florida's intracoastal waterway. It illustrates the role of blood alcohol back-extrapolation and weight-of-evidence WOE in an alcoholic impairment assessment and demonstrates how behavior and judgment on the part of the defendant can be considered as evidential... (more)

Carbon Monoxide Turns Camping Event Deadly   Case Studies in Toxicology: Carbon Monoxide Turns Camping Event Deadly
This case study summarizes a matter in which a group of campers were overcome by carbon monoxide poisoning. It illustrates the importance of taking the initiative to acquire necessary objective evidence to refute presumptions through a scientifically credible toxicological assessment. A group of campers attending an event at the height of summer stayed... (more)

Postmortem Alcohol Formation in a Severely Burned Victim   Case Studies in Toxicology: Postmortem Alcohol Formation in a Severely Burned Victim
In this case study, a passenger severely injured in a motor vehicle fire filed a lawsuit against the vehicle manufacturer. The case partially rested on whether or not the driver and his passenger could be shown to have been intoxicated. The surprising outcome was based on a little known but well-documented fact concerning endogenous alcohol which can... (more)

Acute Marijuana Intoxication   Case Studies in Toxicology: Acute Marijuana Intoxication
Contributes to Fatal Motorcycle Accident This case study illustrates how circumstantial evidence can be misinterpreted and how drug-impaired judgment and behavior can be regarded as evidential in a toxicological causation assessment. Accident Summary A motorcyclist was fatally injured when he collided with a city bus in a business district. a,b A motorcyclist... (more)

Workmen's Compensation Benefits Denied for Presumed Drug Use?   Case Studies in Toxicology: Workmen's Compensation Benefits Denied for Presumed Drug Use?
This case study summarizes a recent matter in which a worker was injured while on the job, then later denied Workmen's Compensation benefits when drug use was alleged. It illustrates the key importance of rebutting presumptions through objective assessment of clear and convincing toxicological evidence. A lineman working on power lines received a serious... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"The known adverse effects of alcohol on the human body are well-documented, but establishing or refuting causation to reasonable toxicological certainty requires application of weight-of-evidence using generally-accepted, peer-reviewed calculation methods."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.