Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Causation Evaluation in Toxicology   Causation Evaluation in Toxicology
Causation is at the very heart of the toxicological world. Causation in toxicology is defined as the action of causing or producing an effect as a result of ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption or other exposure routes to a toxic substance. It is the process by which the expert toxicologist establishes or refutes whether a potential adverse health... (more)

Forensic Analysis in Toxicology   Forensic Toxicology: Forensic Analysis in Toxicology
Forensic toxicology is a multi-disciplinary field combining toxicological principles, analytical chemistry and methods, analytical toxicology, clinical chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, investigative research, data collection and collation - and a certain amount of detective work. TCAS has extensive expertise in forensic toxicology with more than... (more)

Alcohol Toxicology   Toxic Substances: Alcohol Toxicology
TCAS provides alcohol-related toxicological assessment services. a For more than 30 years, TCAS has regularly provided consultative and professional services involving alcohol toxicology . One of the world's most commonly abused drugs, ethanol ethyl alcohol is a leading contributor to morbidity across cultures. Although low to moderate alcohol consumption... (more)

Industrial Chemical Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Industrial Chemical Toxicology
Overview Each chemical has different toxicological properties and characteristics [a] There are tens of thousands of different industrial chemicals manufactured, stored and transported throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. Each substance has different toxicological properties and physical characteristics. Some industrial chemicals can pose... (more)

Case Studies in Toxicology   Case Studies in Toxicology
TCAS case studies are impartial and objective summaries of toxicological investigations Case studies are impartial and objective summaries of toxicological matters wherein TCAS was retained for the purpose of assessing toxicological factors. In many cases the assessment led to a determination of impairment, disease, death causation or no causation.... (more)

Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident   Case Studies in Toxicology: Alcohol Intoxication Leads to Fatal Boating Accident
This case study summarizes the events leading up to and following a fatal boating accident on Florida's intracoastal waterway. It illustrates the role of blood alcohol back-extrapolation and weight-of-evidence WOE in an alcoholic impairment assessment and demonstrates how behavior and judgment on the part of the defendant can be considered as evidential... (more)

Cleaning Chemical Exposure   Case Studies in Toxicology: Cleaning Chemical Exposure
This case study recounts the circumstances surrounding a woman's claims that exposure to a chemical stripping agent caused burns, infection and damage to her immune system. The outcome illustrates the importance of validating claims against medical history and assessing toxicological factors according to the peer-reviewed literature to establish reasonable... (more)

Polypharmacology Induces   Case Studies in Toxicology: Polypharmacology Induces "Sleep Driving"
This case study illustrates the role of toxicological weight-of-evidence WOE in a motor vehicle accident case involving multiple pharmaceuticals. It also illustrates how drug interactions can be considered evidential in a toxicological causation assessment. Multiple pharmaceutical interactions carry an imprecise risk of driving impairment. a On the... (more)

High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy   Case Studies in Toxicology: High-Level Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapor Exposures Induce Toxic Encephalopathy
This case study demonstrates how causation can be demonstrated by weight of evidence WOE and how objective investigation of contributing factors can play a pivitol role in formulating an expert opinion to reasonable toxicological certainty. Toxic encephalopathy can be caused by repeated exposure to refinery hydrocarbon vapors. [a] A process engineer... (more)

Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?   Case Studies in Toxicology: Window Washer's Deadly Fall Due to Heroin Abuse?
This case study summarizes a matter in which a window worker was killed while on the job, resulting in the filing of a lawsuit for negligence. It illustrates how toxicological interpretation of historical factors and application of peer-reviewed human studies can play a pivotal role in litigation. A window washer suddenly and unexpectedly fell to his... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"The known adverse effects of alcohol on the human body are well-documented, but establishing or refuting causation to reasonable toxicological certainty requires application of weight-of-evidence using generally-accepted, peer-reviewed calculation methods."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.