Toxicology Consultants & Assessment Specialists, LLC

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Risk Assessment in Toxicology   Risk Assessment in Toxicology
Risk assessment is a multi-step process which, in conjunction with an exposure assessment and other components, produces estimates of risk of an adverse health effect occuring as a consequence of ingesting, inhaling and/or absorbing one or more toxic substances. TCAS has produced many risk assessments over a period of more than 30 years additional... (more)

Causation Evaluation in Toxicology   Causation Evaluation in Toxicology
Causation is at the very heart of the toxicological world. Causation in toxicology is defined as the action of causing or producing an effect as a result of ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption or other exposure routes to a toxic substance. It is the process by which the expert toxicologist establishes or refutes whether a potential adverse health... (more)

Forensic Analysis in Toxicology   Forensic Toxicology: Forensic Analysis in Toxicology
Forensic toxicology is a multi-disciplinary field combining toxicological principles, analytical chemistry and methods, analytical toxicology, clinical chemistry, pathology, pharmacology, investigative research, data collection and collation - and a certain amount of detective work. TCAS has extensive expertise in forensic toxicology with more than... (more)

Toxicology of Heavy Metals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal Pathways adapted from 1995 U.S. Geological Survey Circular [a] TCAS has been providing heavy metal consultative and toxicological assessment services for more than 30 years. Although some heavy metals are necessary ingredients in a healthy body, heavy metal contamination can cause a wide range of adverse health effects. Unlike organic pollutants,... (more)

Drugs of Abuse   Toxic Substances: Drugs of Abuse
Drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature. a TCAS has provided toxicological guidance, written assessments and expert testimony in hundreds of drug-related cases. Virtually all drugs of abuse are well-documented in the peer-reviewed toxicological literature with clearly-established endpoints. However, drugs of... (more)

Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals   Toxic Substances: Toxicology of Pharmaceuticals
TCAS has broad experience with pharmaceutical toxicology. a TCAS has wide experience with pharmaceutical toxicology and has performed many assessments involving prescription medications, drugs of abuse, vaccines and over-the-counter preparations. Although pharmaceutical use can be a significant toxicological factor in a variety of claims, the real... (more)

Environmantal Hazard Toxicology   Hazardous Substances: Environmantal Hazard Toxicology
Overview TCAS has extensive experience assessing environmental hazards [a] Environmental hazards are substances found within a confined environment which can pose an exposure hazard if ingested, inhaled or absorbed. These include such agents as dust, mold and fungi, carbon monoxide, pyrolysis emissions, nuclear waste and many others. The wide range... (more)

Toxicology of Pesticides   Hazardous Substances: Toxicology of Pesticides
Overview Pathways of pesticide movement in the hydrologic cycle USGS [a] Pesticides are in widespread use throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. There are many classes of pesticides including insecticides pyrethrins and pyrethroids, n-methyl carbamates, organophosphate insecticides, organochlorines, biologicals and acaricides , herbicides chlorophenoxy... (more)

Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)   Toxic Exposure Studies: Forensic Analysis of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)
For more than two decades, TCAS has been retained in cases involving LNAPLs. We have considerable experience in establishing the source s , age and characteristics of LNAPL. Additionally, we have performed LNAPL risk assessments on behalf of individuals, private industry and government agencies New York State DEC, New Jersey DEC and others . We have... (more)

Fatal Accident Caused by Long-Term Drug Use?   Case Studies in Toxicology: Fatal Accident Caused by Long-Term Drug Use?
This toxicological case study illustrates the methods and means by which presumed causation can be refuted through interpretation of objective scientific evidence. It summarizes the events following the death of an elderly man involved in a motor vehicle accident and demonstrates how pharmacological factors and behavior on the part of the defendant... (more)

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A Message from Dr. William R. Sawyer
Chief Toxicologist, TCAS, LLC

A message from Dr. William R. Sawyer, Expert Toxicologist

"To assess the health effects of heavy metals, the expert toxicologist must conduct investigative research, evaluate the exposure pathways and valence states, calculate dosage and apply weight-of-evidence factors to demonstrate or refute causation."

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This is an informational and instructional website devoted to toxicology. It presents both original and edited public-domain content compiled as a useful educational resource. References and footnotes have been included wherever possible and image sources have been cited where appropriate. Although most pages can be printed or downloaded as PDF files (and we encourage you to make constructive use of our information), this website is copyrighted and material may only be reproduced and/or distributed with prior permission from TCAS, LLC.